Sativex is a cannabis-based medicine. It is licensed in the UK for people with Multiple Sclerosis muscle spasticity that hasn’t improved with other treatments. Sativex is a liquid that you spray into your mouth.
A drug called dexanabinol which is a man made form of a chemical similar to that found in cannabis has been trialled in a phase 1 trial. This is an early trial that tries to work out whether or not the drug works in humans, what the correct dose is and what the side effects might be. The results are not available yet. You can read about the trial on our clinical trials database.
Prescription drugs such as Nabilone can cause side effects. This can include:
Cannabinoids have helped with sickness and pain in some people.
Researchers are looking into Sativex as a treatment for cancer related symptoms.
Studies to answer this question are underway. Some scientists are studying whether CBD could relieve some of the side effects of cancer and its treatment, such as pain, insomnia, anxiety, or nausea. Other scientists are studying whether CBD could potentially slow or stop the growth of cancer.
You may also be wondering if CBD is legal in your area. Some states allow the sale and possession of cannabis, including CBD and THC, for medical and recreational use. Others have stricter regulations, so state-by-state laws should always be learned before transporting CBD across state lines. Things are more complicated at the federal level. In 2018, the U.S. government recognized that hemp can be grown and manufactured legally as part of the Farm Act. Hemp can be used to make things like rope and clothing, in addition to CBD oil. In other words, hemp is no longer a controlled substance, which means it is not regulated by the government. This means that consumers have to evaluate the safety and quality of CBD products on their own. Some CBD, for example, may have much higher levels of THC than what is labeled.
What is CBD?
To date, no large-scale studies have shown CBD to have benefits for the treatment of people with cancer. Most studies that have been done evaluating CBD as a cancer treatment were in mice or in human cells in the lab. For instance, there are some studies that have shown that CBD inhibits the growth of cancer cells in mice with lung cancer or colon cancer. Another study showed that CBD, together with THC, killed glioblastoma cancer cells in the lab. However, no studies have been conducted in people with cancer.
There is much about CBD that is still unknown. It has largely gone unstudied because, until 2018, it was considered a schedule I drug by the U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA). A schedule I drug is a drug that has been declared illegal by the DEA because of safety concerns over its potential for abuse and because there is no accepted medical use for it. Then, in September 2018, the DEA updated CBD’s status to become a schedule V drug. Schedule V drugs have a lower potential for abuse and are deemed to have some medical use.
There is currently 1 CBD treatment approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) called Epidiolex, which is used to treat a rare and severe form of epilepsy in children. There are not currently any FDA-approved CBD medications for treating cancer or side effects of cancer treatments.
Dr. Raghunathan: Medical marijuana contains THC and that requires certification in states that allow for medical marijuana. In New York, people with cancer are allowed to use medical marijuana in the form of capsules, liquids, oils, powder, and patches for the skin. There is medical cannabis that can be vaped, but not medical-grade marijuana leaf that can be smoked. Medical marijuana providers must be registered with the New York State Department of Health’s Medical Marijuana Program. The restrictions in New York state are changing, but we don’t know how just yet.
Dr. Raghunathan: CBD is not psychoactive in the same way that marijuana is. It doesn’t act on the cannabinoid receptors in the central nervous system, which is how THC works. However, it is possibly psychoactive because it works on serotonin receptors, and anything that affects mood is psychoactive. CBD has been studied in mice and seems to affect sleep-wake cycles. But CBD can be unexpectedly psychoactive and sedative because it’s not well-regulated. Studies have shown that some products that claim to be pure CBD actually have THC and other dangerous contaminants, such as opioids.
What about medical marijuana? How is it different from recreational marijuana and how can patients get it?
Cannabis, also known as marijuana, is used to treat some symptoms related to cancer. It’s made from the flowers, leaves, and resin (sticky chemical) of the Cannabis sativa plant.
The law also establishes retail licenses, opening the door for dispensaries selling marijuana online and in retail stores.
Dr. Raghunathan: While legalization and regulation may change the accessibility and/or quality of all cannabis products, it doesn’t change the lack of scientific evidence. Unfortunately, we still don’t know enough about the benefits of these products for people with cancer. There is a lot of research happening in Canada and Australia because regulations around its use there have changed. It will be interesting to see what comes out of that. In the meantime, you and your doctor should discuss the potential benefits and harms of using anything with cannabis for medical purposes.