“CBD-induced pain relief is not just driven by psychological placebo effects, but also pharmacological action,” explained study author Martin De Vita, a researcher in the psychology department at Syracuse University, in New York. “It’s a little bit of both.”
The bottom line? CBD — and your expectations about whether it will help (the “placebo effect”) — can make pain feel less bothersome, but it doesn’t appear to reduce pain intensity.
Now, the researchers hope to look at how CBD affects pain perception in people with different pain conditions, he noted.
The body’s central nervous system has its own processes to dampen pain based on information about when (temporal processing) and where (spatial processing) the pain is happening, he explained. “Expectancies alone enhanced temporal pain inhibition, and CBD and expectancies both enhanced the spatial pain inhibition independently, but not when combined,” De Vita said.
THURSDAY, April 29, 2021 (HealthDay News) — CBD is all the rage, and millions of people are turning to it for a host of reasons, including pain relief.
And although cannabis been demonized as a gateway to more dangerous substances, Hurd has found that it might actually contain an effective antidote for potentially deadly addictions. After observing that rats with a heroin addiction were less likely to seek out the opioid when treated with CBD, she began to investigate whether CBD might have the same effect on people with an opioid dependency. On the basis of an encouraging pilot study, Hurd and her team conducted a randomized controlled trial in 42 abstinent heroin users, who had avoided taking the drug for up to three months after years of routine or heavy use 13 . The researchers then exposed the participants to drug paraphernalia and videos that showed heroin use — cues that normally provoke strong cravings in people with a dependency — and then measured participant-reported responses and physiological indicators of stress and anxiety. “Cue-induced craving is associated with increased cortisol levels and increased heart-rate, and CBD reduced those,” she says. Participants receiving CBD also reported lower levels of drug craving and anxiety relative to placebo group, and Hurd notes that the beneficial effects persisted for a week after the final administration of CBD.
Forty years on from Mechoulam’s initial work, extensive randomized controlled trials have decisively shown that this purified cannabinoid can profoundly benefit children with certain epileptic disorders. “Over those trials, we saw about a 26–28% reduction in frequency over placebo in all convulsive seizures for Dravet syndrome and drop seizures for Lennox–Gastaut syndrome,” says Devinsky, who has led several such studies 4 , 5 . “Some of the patients became, and remain, seizure-free.”
A difficult delivery
The breakthrough approval of Epidiolex was driven by strong investment from GW Pharmaceuticals, as well as vigorous advocacy from families of children with epilepsy who had heard tantalizing anecdotes about CBD’s effects from jurisdictions in which medical cannabis is legal. “About eight years ago, a patient’s father said he was hearing stories about families in Colorado and California who use high-CBD strains for their kids’ epilepsy,” says Devinsky. “He asked me to do a trial.” As a medical student, he had been taught the history of medicinal cannabis, including well-documented uses of the plant by nineteenth-century physicians to treat seizures. Indeed, cannabis has been part of the clinical armamentarium for epilepsy for more than 4,000 years.
“In New York City, you can go to a latte shop and get a CBD product, but if I want to do a clinical trial, I’ve got to get a 2,000-pound safe and go through six months of paperwork and licensing,” says Orrin Devinsky, director of the NYU Langone Comprehensive Epilepsy Center in New York City. Like the cannabis plant from which it is derived, CBD, a type of cannabinoid, is classified by the US Drug Enforcement Administration in the same way as are heroin and lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) — schedule 1 substances with “high potential for abuse” and “no currently accepted medical use”.
Cannabidiol oil has purported health benefits, including helping to relieve chronic pain. Credit: Don Bartletti/Los Angeles Times/Getty