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Hairy bittercress A native, annual to biennial plant found in open and cultivated ground, and on rocks and walls throughout the UK. Hairy bittercress is recorded up to 3,800 ft. It is a common Spring is in the air, little green things are popping up all over, and we all heave a sigh of relief that the blanket of white stuff is finally gone. But beneath the snow that stopped everything in… Late winter and spring signal growth of all plants but especially weeds, like hairy bittercress weed. What is hairy bittercress? This article explains more as well as how to keep the weed under control.

Hairy bittercress

A native, annual to biennial plant found in open and cultivated ground, and on rocks and walls throughout the UK. Hairy bittercress is recorded up to 3,800 ft. It is a common weed of gardens, greenhouses, paths, railways and waste ground. It is a particular problem in container-raised plants from nurseries and garden centres.

Hairy bittercress is variable in size and leaf shape. Waved bittercress, C. flexuosa, closely resembles hairy bittercress and is also variable in habit. It is usually annual or biennial but occasionally perennial. A related introduced weed, New Zealand bittercress, C. corymbosa, has become troublesome in polytunnels. It is similar in appearance to hairy bittercress and has the same explosive seedpods but is generally smaller.

Hairy bittercress is found in flower all through the year but mainly from March to August. It is automatically self-pollinated. Seed is shed in May and June and sometimes into the autumn. There are around 20 seeds per seedpod. The average seed number per plant is 600 but a large plant may yield several thousand seeds. Plants can be found in fruit for 8 months of the year.

There is little germination of the fresh seeds. The seed after-ripens at high temperatures. The higher the temperature the greater the temperature range at which subsequent germination will take place. Germination is increased by a period of dry storage.

Hairy bittercress seed germinates from April to December. There are peak flushes of seedling emergence from July to August and November to December but this varies in different years. Autumn is the main period of seedling emergence. Hairy bittercress can complete its lifecycle in 5-6 weeks. The cycle is longer in rich soils and shorter in poor ones. Seedlings can survive the severest frost.

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Hairy bittercress forms a relatively persistent soil seedbank.

When the seedpods are ripe the seeds are dispersed explosively for up to 1 m if the plants are shaken by the wind or by weeding operations. The seeds become sticky when wet and can be spread on tools and clothing.

Seedlings should be killed by early cultivations and regular hoeing to prevent hairy bittercress plants flowering and setting seed. Stem fragments are capable of re-rooting following cultivation in moist conditions. Hairy bittercress seedlings should be removed from container plants before the weed can set and shed seeds. The standing areas must also be kept weed-free. Improved drainage may discourage this moisture-loving weed.

Worst Winter Weeds: Hairy Bittercress

Spring is in the air, little green things are popping up all over, and we all heave a sigh of relief that the blanket of white stuff is finally gone. But beneath the snow that stopped everything in its tracks lurks a hardy, robust little puff of tiny green leaves that virtually grows before your eyes.

(This article was originally published on March 29, 2010. Your comments are welcome but please be aware that authors of previously published articles may not be able to respond to your questions or comments.)

Call it what you will – hairy bittercress, winter bittercress, hairy cress, popping cress – Cardamine hirsuta – is a weed that tries the most forgiving gardener’s patience. Growing worldwide (except in the Antarctic, this genus of the Brassicaceae family numbers more than 150 species, both annual and perennial. The plant is self-pollinating and in bloom throughout the year. It loves moist soil and grows aggressively under those conditions.

As the snow melts, tiny white, pink, or lavender flowers begin to appear. Yes, flowers. This tenacious weed is short-lived, which is good, you say. A life cycle of 6 weeks doesn’t seem like such a big deal. Think again – how many 6-week cycles are there in a year?

One of the biggest problems with bittercress is that, by the time you discover you have a problem, it’s almost too late to do anything about it. The first flowers appear in late February or early March, quickly form seed pods, and mature. If you touch those trigger-happy seed pods, i t’s all over – the pods explode, distributing seeds over an area up to 36 inches around each plant. Those seeds will germinate and begin sprouting with a few days and the cycle begins again, only over a larger area. Small to medium size plants produce about 600 seeds, and larger plants can yield up to 1,000 seeds.

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Hairy bittercress is not invasive enough to warrant using herbicides. As soon as new plants appear in February or March, begin pulling them; these are the offspring of the previous fall’s seed crop. Through the season, always pull the seedlings when you see them; they have shallow roots and come away quite easily; however, bits of root left behind are capable of re-rooting under optimum conditions. The key is to get the plants before they set seed, which happens quickly after blooming. Eradicating this weed from large areas is almost impossible, unless you can hoe and remove. Keeping bittercress out of the flower beds is a little easier, but requires diligent hand-weeding to stay ahead of the seed formation. The leaves release a pungent aroma when bruised.

Hairy bittercress is a problem in greenhouses and nurseries, so be sure to clear off the top 2 to 3 inches of soil before planting anything you purchase. Scoop the soil into a plastic bag and dis card. Keep a close watch on newly planted containers, especially those that are positioned near flower beds. The propulsion factor of bittercress seeds can sneak new plants into your containers while you aren’t looking. Hairy bittercress is a real problem near flagstone patios or walks, brick work, or any hard-scaping that has space between the pieces. This weed does not need much to set down roots – even a small amount of sand between two bricks is plenty.

Hairy Bittercress Killer: Learn More About Control For Hairy Bittercress

Late winter and spring signal growth of all plants, but especially weeds. Annual weed seeds overwinter and then burst into growth towards the end of the season. Hairy bittercress weed is no exception. What is hairy bittercress? The plant is an annual weed, which is one of the earliest to sprout and form seeds. Control for hairy bittercress starts early in the season, before flowers turn to seed and get a chance to spread.

What is Hairy Bittercress?

Hairy bittercress weed (Cardamine hirsuta) is an annual spring or winter pest. The plant springs from a basal rosette and bears 3 to 9 inch (8-23 cm.) long stems. The leaves are alternate and slightly scalloped with the largest at the base of the plant. Tiny white flowers develop at the ends of the stems and then turn into long seedpods. These pods split open explosively when ripe and fling seeds out into the environment.

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The weed prefers cool, moist soil and is most prolific after early spring rains. The weeds spread quickly but their appearance reduces as temperatures increase. The plant has a long, deep taproot, which makes pulling them out manually ineffective. Control for hairy bittercress is cultural and chemical.

Preventing Hairy Bittercress in the Garden

This pesky weed is small enough to hide among your landscape plants. Its extensive seed expulsion means that just one or two weeds can spread quickly through the garden in spring. Early control for hairy bittercress is essential to protect the rest of the landscape from an infestation.

Prevent invasions into turf areas by encouraging good grass growth. The weeds easily infest thin or patchy areas. Apply several inches (8 cm.) of mulch around landscape plants to help prevent seeds from getting a foothold in your soil.

Cultural Control for Hairy Bittercress

Pulling out hairy bittercress weed usually leaves the root behind. The plant will re-sprout from healthy weeds and the problem persists. You can, however, use a long slim weeding tool to dig down and around the taproot and get all the plant material out of the ground.

Mowing will achieve control over time. Do it frequently enough that you remove the flower heads before they become seed pods.

As temperatures get warmer, the plant will die naturally without having reproduced. That means fewer weeds the following season.

Chemical Hairy Bittercress Killer

Severe infestations of hairy bittercress weed will require chemical treatment. Herbicides applied post emergence need to have two different active ingredients. The ingredients must be 2-4 D, triclopyr, clopyralid, dicamba, or MCPP. These are found in broadleaf herbicide preparations known as two, three, or four-way treatments.

The higher number preparations will kill a wide range of weeds. The two-way herbicide should be sufficient for your purposes unless you have a field full of a variety of weed pests as well as the hairy bittercress weed. Apply your chosen herbicide in spring or fall.

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